Cardiovascular Health Table 13: Effects of exercise training on lipid lipoprotein profiles in persons with spinal cord injury

Author, Year;
Country
Score
Research Design
Sample Size
Methods Outcomes
de Groot et al. 2003;
Netherlands
PEDro = 7
RCT
N = 6
Population: 4 male, 2 female, C5-L1, AIS A (n = 1), B (n = 1), and C (n = 4), age 36 yrs, 116 d post-injury.
Treatment: Randomized to low-intensity (50%–60% HRR) or high-intensity (70%–80% HRR) arm ergometry; 20 min/d, 3 d/wk, 8 wks.
Outcome Measures: lipid profiles including total cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL, triglycerides (TG).
1.     The TC/HDL ratio and triglycerides decreased significantly more in the high-intensity group.
Hooker & Wells 1989;
USA
Prospective controlled trial
N = 8
Population: Low-intensity group: n = 6, 3 male, 3 female, C5-T10, age 26–36 yrs, 3 months to 19 yrs post-injury; moderate-intensity group: n = 5, 3 male, 2 female, C5-T9, age 23–30 yrs, 2–19 yrs post-injury.

Treatment: Wheelchair ergometry 20 min/d, 3 d/wk, 8 wks: low-intensity (50%–60% max HRR) and moderate intensity (70%–80% max HRR).

Outcome Measures: total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, HDL, LDL.

 

1.     No change in lipid levels in low-intensity group.

2.     Significant increases in HDL and decreases in triglycerides, LDL, and the TC/HDL ratio in the moderate intensity group.

El-Sayed et al. 2005;
UK
Pre-post
N = 12
Population: 5 SCI, lesion below T10, age 32 yrs; 7 AB controls, age 31 yrs.

Treatment: Arm ergometry, 30 min/d (60%–65%VO2peak), 3 d/wk, 12 wks.

Outcome Measures: VO2peak, peak HR, peak workload, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, HDL.

 

1.     Training improved HDL but did not alter TC or triglycerides.
Stewart et al. 2004;

Canada

Pre-post

N = 9

Population: 8 male, 1 female, incomplete AIS C, C4-T12, 8.1 yrs post-injury.

Treatment: Body-weight–supported treadmill training, 3 d/wk, 6 months.

Outcome Measures: ambulatory capacity (Wernig Walking Scale), cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides.

1.     There were significant reductions in TC (-11.2%), LDL (-12.9%), and TC/HDL (-19.8%).
Nash et al. 2001;

USA

Pre-post

N=5

Population: 5 males, complete lesions T6-L1, age 37.8 yrs, 4.8 yrs post-injury.

Treatment: Circuit resistance training (50%–60%1 repetition maximum), 3 d/wk, 12 wks.

Outcome Measures: VO2peak, time to fatigue, TC, triglycerides, HDL, LDL.

1.     There were significant decreases in LDL, LDL/HDL, and TC/HDL after training.
Solomonow et al. 1997;
USA
Pre-post
N = 70/33
Population: All subjects had paraplegia, no other details given.

Treatment: Reciprocating gait orthosis powered with electrical muscle stimulation, 3 hr/wk, 14 wks.

Outcome Measures: cholesterol, LDL, HDL

 

1.     There were significant reductions in total cholesterol, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, and TC/HDL ratio in 8 patients with initially high total cholesterol levels (>200 mg·dL-1).

Note: AIS = ASIA Impairment Scale; d = day; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; hr = hour; HRR = heart rate reserve; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; min = minute; RCT = randomized controlled trial; TC = total cholesterol; wk = week; yr = year.

 

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