- SCI-specific scale developed to measure perceived exercise self-efficacy for various types of physical activities.
- Requires individuals to indicate their confidence in performing physical activities and exercise.
- One item asks whether the individual has exercised at home and/or in a gym in the past 12 months.
Body Function – Subcategory: General Functions.
Number of Items:
Brief Instructions for Administration & Scoring
- Self-report, pen and paper format.
- Requires individuals to respond to items on a 4-point Likert scale (1-not at all true, 4-always true).
- Exercise activity is based on the response to a dichotomous item that specifies whether respondents have exercised ‘at home and/or gym’ vs. ‘no exercise’.
- Takes approximately 5 min to administer.
Scoring: The total score is derived by summing the scores for the individual items; possible scores range from 10 to 40.
- Higher scores indicate greater perceived self-efficacy.
- The dichotomous item is used to estimate the subject’s average exercise activity.
- No cut-points and normative data for the SCI population have been established
- Published data for the SCI population is available for comparison (see the Interpretability section of the Study Details sheet)
See the 'How to use' page of this tool.
- Self-efficacy is the belief individuals have in their ability to perform certain behaviours to achieve desired outcomes. The ESES measures the subject’s perceived exercise self-efficacy beliefs. Evidence suggests that the adoption of and adherence to regular exercise is influenced by self-efficacy to perform physical activity. Consequently, this scale was developed to address the lack of an exercise self-efficacy tool for people with SCI.
- The ESES was developed specifically for the SCI population based on expert comments and interviews with individuals with SCI. Therefore, it should represent the physical activity and exercise self-efficacy issues of this unique population.
Measurement Property Summary
# of studies reporting psychometric properties: 3
- Internal consistency of the ESES scale is High (α=0.87-0.93).
- Test-retest reliability employed split-half internal consistency and was found to be 0.8836 (Equal-Length Spearman-Brown test).
[Kroll et al. 2007]
- The ESES is significantly (P<.05) and Moderately correlated with the Generalised Self Efficacy Scale (ρ=0.316).
[Kroll et al. 2007]
No values were reported for the responsiveness of the ESES scale for the SCI population.
No values were reported for the presence of floor/ceiling effects in ESES for the SCI population.
Dr. Vanessa Noonan, John Zhu, Jeremy Mak
Date Last Updated:
Dec 1, 2016
Fliess-douer O, Vanlandewijck YC, Van der woude LH. Reliability and validity of perceived self-efficacy in wheeled mobility scale among elite wheelchair-dependent athletes with a spinal cord injury. Disabil Rehabil. 2013;35(10):851-9.
Kroll T, Kehn M, Ho PS, Groah S. The SCI exercise self-efficacy scale (ESES): development and psychometric properties. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2007, 4:34.
Nooijen CF, Post MW, Spijkerman DC, Bergen MP, Stam HJ, Van den berg-emons RJ. Exercise self-efficacy in persons with spinal cord injury: psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale. J Rehabil Med. 2013;45(4):347-50.