A total of 126 studies examining SM programs among individuals with SCI were included (See appendix located after references).
Year of Publication
The majority of studies were published between 2010 and 2020 (66.7%; N=84) (Figure 1). Between 2000 and 2010, 28 (22.2%) studies were published and prior to 2000, just 14 (11.1%) studies were published.
Country of Affiliation
There were 18 unique countries represented; the majority of studies were published in the USA (48.4%; N=61), followed by Canada (16.7%; N=21), and Australia (11.9%; N=15). Among the remaining countries represented, 11 (8.7%) were from Europe, 9 (7.1%) were from Asia, and 1 (0.8%) was from Africa.
There were nine different research designs employed in the studies. The majority of research design were either Pre-Post (28.6%; N=36) or Randomized Controlled Trials (25.4%; N=32), followed by Program Descriptions (15.1%; N=19), Observational studies (11.1%; N=14), and Prospective Controlled Trials (7.9%; N=10). The remaining 15 (11.9%) studies were either Case Series, Post-Tests, Cohort or Case Control studies.
There were 17 studies with a sample size of 0 (program description studies). The majority of the remaining studies had a sample size less than 100 subjects or less (78.6%; N=99) (Figure 2).