|Author Year; Country|
Research DesignSample Size
|Thrasher et al. 2006|
|Population: 5 males and females; age 24-72 yrs; all participants had an incomplete SCI; C5-T12 lesion level; 2-24 yrs post-injury.|
Treatment: Gait training regimen with FES neuroprosthesis 2-5x/week for 12-18 weeks. First 4-8 sessions consisted of lower limb muscle strengthening performed in 4 sets of 5 min with 5 min rest. Participants then performed walking exercises with the neuroprosthesis for 15-30 min/session (rest as needed) either on a treadmill or overground.
Outcome Measures: Walking speed, stride length, step frequency
|1. 4/5 participants significantly increased walking speeds (95% significance level). These 4 participants also significantly increased step frequency and stride length (95% significance level).|
|Ladouceur & Barbeau 2000a|
|Population: 14 participants; age 25-49 yrs; all participants had an incomplete SCI; C3-L1 lesion level; 1.8-19.1 yrs post-injury,|
Treatment: Surface FES: bilateral or unilateral common peroneal nerve, home use as much as possible ~1 year (26 and 56 weeks), 2 participants also had bilateral quadriceps.
Outcome measures: temporal gait measures.
|1. There were significant increases in mean walking speed (0.10 m/s, p=.007) and mean stride length (0.12 m, p=.065) both with and without FES over the first year of FES use.|
2. FES-assisted walking led to minor increases in mean walking speed, but these changes were not significant (p=.543).
|Ladouceur & Barbeau 2000b|
|Population: 14 participants; age 25-49 yrs; all participants had an incomplete SCI; C3-L1 lesion level; 1.8-19.1 yrs post-injury|
Treatment: Surface FES: bilateral or unilateral common peroneal nerve, 2 participants also had bilateral quadriceps, home use as much as possible ~1 year.
Outcome measures: temporal gait measures.
|1. 7/14 participants showed improvement based on type of ambulatory device.|
2. 13/14 participants improved gait speed with FES.
3. Training/carryover effect after long-term use: increase evident even when FES off in 12/14 participants.
|Wieler et al. 1999|
|Population: 31 males and females; mean (SD) age 36(2) yrs; all participants had an incomplete SCI; mean(SD) 6(1) yrs post-injury.|
Treatment: Surface FES: common peroneal nerve; some participants also received FES to hamstrings, quadriceps, gluteus medius, duration of FES ranged from 3 months to over 3 years. Each participant was tested at the start and end of the study both with and without FES.
Outcome measures: walking speed, stride length, cycle time
|1. There was a significant improvement in gait speed in participants when treated with FES (p<.01) but that improvement in gait speed persisted even when participants walked without FES (p<.01)|
2. The slowest quintile of participants increased their walking speed by 70% while the fastest quintile of participants increased their walking speed by 20%.
3. The initial gait speed at the start of study was significantly faster when patients used FES than when no FES was used (p<.05)
|Klose et al. 1997|
|Population: Mean (SD) age 28.4 (6.6) years; all participants had complete SCI; T4-T11 lesion level; 0.7-9.0 yrs post-injury|
Treatment: Surface FES: Parastep: 6 channels (bilateral common peroneal nerve, quadriceps, glutei); 3X/week, 32 sessions (once participants had sufficient strength to stand).
Outcome measures: walking distance and speed (with FES).
|1. Most participants improved endurance and gait speed. Longest distance walked with FES was between 12 to 1707 m (mean: 334 m; SD 402 m).|
2. There were significant differences in distance travelled (p<.001) and gait speed (p<.001) over the 11 weeks.
|Granat et al. 1993|
|Population: 6 males and females; age 20-40 yrs; all participants had diagnosis of Frankel C and D; C3-L1 lesion level; 2 to 18 yrs post-injury|
Treatment: Surface FES: quadriceps, hip abductors, hamstrings, erector spinae, common peroneal nerve,
Outcome measures: walking speed, stride length, cadence.
|1. Significant mean increase in stride length, but not speed or cadence.|
2. 3 to 4 participants had significant individual increases in gait speed, stride length and cadence.
|Stein et al. 1993|
|Population: 10 males and females; age 20-44 yrs; all participants had an incomplete SCI; C2-T10 lesion level; 2.5-10 years post-injury.|
Treatment: Surface, percutaneous, or implanted FES of common peroneal nerve, and sometimes quadriceps, glutei, and psoas.
Outcome measures: speed, gait parameters.
|1. All participants improved gait speed when FES was on (mean change was 4 m/min)|
2. Participants with more severe SCI were the most receptive towards the FES treatment
|Granat et al. 1992 Scotland|
|Population: 3 males and 3 females; age 18-40 yrs; all participants had an incomplete SCI; C4-T12 lesion level; 2-10 yrs post-injury.|
Treatment: 12-months of FES to quadriceps for strengthening and gait (specific program not specified). Additional stimulation to hip abductors and erector spinae as needed.
Outcome Measures: walking speed with FES compared to orthosis.
|1. No significant difference in gait speed with FES compared to ambulation with orthosis.|
2. Participants were able to use FES for 10-45 minutes.
3. All participants were able to use FES at home for standing and walking; 2 also use FES for outdoor walking.
4. 3 patients eventually discontinued use of FES citing impracticality for regular use