There is inconclusive evidence for Reciprocating Gait Orthosis, long leg braces or passive standing as a treatment for low bone mass after SCI. One mixed cross-sectional and a longitudinal study found that participants who underwent quadriceps activation during stance with 150% body weight compressive load, had significantly higher BMD than participants who underwent quadriceps activation during stance with 40% body weight compressive load and passive standing. One cross-sectional study (Goemaere et al. 1994) used a self-report physical activity measure to highlight the potential for standing to reduce BMD decline at the femoral shaft; patients with long leg braces had a significantly higher trochanter and total BMD compared with standing frame or standing wheelchair. In contrast, another cross-sectional investigation of bone outcomes and self-report physical activity measures found no effect of activity on lower extremity bone parameters (Jones et al. 2002).