Etiology of Shoulder Pain

You have explained to Mr. Rajah that shoulder overuse syndromes are common in persons with spinal cord injury. However, he has many friends of his age or older who have significant shoulder pain, and had thought his shoulder pain was the result of “normal aging”.
Is the presumed etiology of shoulder pain secondary to SCI or natural aging?
1. It is very difficult to determine whether shoulder pain is a function of living with a SCI or simply a part of the normal aging process.
Are there any objective measures of shoulder pain in SCI patients?
1. Wheelchair Users’ Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI)