Risks for Cardiovascular Disease

Q1. What is the risk of cardiovascular disease in individuals with SCI?
1.The majority of CVD events are the result of atherosclerosis (i.e., narrowing and hardening of the arteries).
2. Individuals with SCI have a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease including:
-Abnormal lipoprotein profiles
-Abnormal glucose homeostasis
-Increased relative adiposity, elevated body fat and/or reduced lean body mass
-Reduced peripheral vascular function and/or endothelial dysfunction
-Increased risk for deep vein thrombosis
-Abnormal haemostatic and inflammatory markers
-Excessive homocysteine
-Depressed endogenous anabolic hormone levels (e.g. serum testosterone and growth hormone)
-Increased activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
-Reduced aerobic fitness