The Wheelchair User’s Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI) is a simple and effective self-report questionnaire for quickly measuring the functional cost of shoulder pain in wheelchair users. The WUSPI targets activity limitation resulting from shoulder pain (4 subsections), including wheelchair transfers, wheelchair mobility, selfcare and general activities. However, it does not obtain information about the type or frequency of pain experienced during the activities.
Body Function; Subcategory: Sensory Functions
Number of Items:
Brief Instructions for Administration and Scoring:
You will need approximately 5 minutes to complete the WUSPI.
Each item is scored 0-10 on a 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS). Total score (0-150) is the sum of
all item scores.
Higher scores indicate greater interference due to shoulder pain. No strategies are suggested to assist with scoring if a person indicates they do not do certain activities (e.g./ load their chair into a car).
MCID: not established in SCI
Standard Error of Measurement: 1.84
Minimal Detectable Change: 5.10
(calculated from Curtis et al, 1995b; n = 16; mean age = 38.1 (12.2) years; mean time of
wheelchair use = 15.0 (10.0) years; 11 subjects with SCI, 5 subjects with other disorders)
Measurement Property Summary:
High Test-retest Reliability: ICC = 0.99
(Curtis et al., 1995b; N=16, 15 male, mixed diagnoses with 69% SCI)
High Internal Consistency: α = 0.97
(Curtis et al., 1995a; N=64, 62 male, mixed diagnoses with 69% SCI)
Number of studies reporting reliability data: 2
Low correlation with Klein-Bell ADL Scale: Correlation = 0.10 (Samuelsson et al., 2004; N=56, 44 male; paraplegia; >1 year post-SCI)
High Convergent Validity with Numerical Rating Scale 101 (for Pain): Correlation = 0.723 (Salisbury et al. 2006; N=27, 20 male, tetraplegia, 2-4 years post-SCI)
Number of studies reporting validity data: 3
Dr. Bill Miller, Matthew Querée, Kyle Diab, John Zhu
Date Last Updated:
August 3, 2020
Download the measure
Curtis KA, Roach KE, Applegate EB, Amar T, Benbow CS, Genecco TD, Gualano J. Development of the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI). Paraplegia 1995;33:290-293.
Curtis KA, Roach KE, Applegate EB, Amar T, Benbow CS, Genecco TD, Gualano J. Reliability and validity of the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI). Paraplegia 1995;33:595-601.
Samuelsson KAM, Tropp H, Gerdle B. Shoulder pain and its consequences in paraplegic spinal cord-injured wheelchair users. Spinal Cord 2004; 42:41–46.
Salisbury SK, Nitz J, Souvlis T. Shoulder pain following tetraplegia: a follow-up study 2–4 years after injury. Spinal Cord 2006; 44:723–728.