AA

References

Download as a PDF

Abel NA, Smith RA. Intrathecal baclofen for treatment of intractable spinal spasticity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1994;75:54-58.

Adams MM, Hicks AL. Spasticity after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2005;43(10):577-586.

Al-Khodairy AT, Gobelet C, Rossier AB. Has botulinum toxin type A a place in the treatment of spasticity in spinal cord injury patients? Spinal Cord 1998;36(12):854-858.

Alaca R, Goktepe AS, Yildiz N, Yilmaz B, Gunduz S. Effect of penile vibratory stimulation on spasticity in men with spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005;84(11):875-879.

Albert TA, Yelnik A, Bonan I, Lebreton F, Bussel B. Effectiveness of femoral nerve selective block in patients with spasticity: preliminary results. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002 May;83(5):692-6.

Anderson KD, Borisoff JF, Johnson RD, Stiens SA, Elliott SL. Long-term effects of spinal cord injury on sexual function in men: implications for neuroplasticity. Spinal Cord 2007;45(5):338-348.

Anderson KD, Borisoff JF, Johnson RD, Stiens SA, Elliott SL. Spinal cord injury influences psychogenic as well as physical components of female sexual ability. Spinal Cord 2007;45(5):349-359.

Ashworth B. Preliminary trial of carisoprodol in multiple sclerosis. Practitioner 1964;192:540-542.

Avellino AM, Loeser JD. Intrathecal baclofen for the treatment of intractable spasticity of spine or brain etiology. Neuromodulation 3(2)()(pp 75-81), 2000 Date of Publication: 2000 2000;(2):75-81.

Aydin G, Tomruk S, Keles I, Demir SO, Orkun S. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation versus baclofen in spasticity: clinical and electrophysiologic comparison. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005;84(8):584-592.

Azouvi P, Mane M, Thiebaut JB, Denys P, Remy-Neris O, Bussel B. Intrathecal baclofen administration for control of severe spinal spasticity: functional improvement and long-term follow-up. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77:35-39.

Bajd T, Gregoric M, Vodovnik L, Benko H. Electrical stimulation in treating spasticity resulting from spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1985;66(8):515-517.

Baker D, Pryce G, Croxford JL, Brown P, Pertwee RG, Makriyannis A et al. Endocannabinoids control spasticity in a multiple sclerosis model. FASEB J 2001;15(2):300-302.

Bakheit AM, Pittock S, Moore AP, Wurker M, Otto S, Erbguth F et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A in upper limb spasticity in patients with stroke. Eur J Neurol 2001;8(6):559-565.

Barbeau H, Richards CL, Bedard PJ. Action of cyproheptadine in spastic paraparetic patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1982;45(10):923-926.

Barolat G, Myklebust JB, Wenninger W. Effects of spinal cord stimulation on spasticity and spasms secondary to myelopathy. Appl Neurophysiol 1988;51(1):29-44.

Barolat G, Singh-Sahni K, Staas WE, Jr., Shatin D, Ketcik B, Allen K. Epidural spinal cord stimulation in the management of spasms in spinal cord injury: a prospective study. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1995;64(3):153-164.

Bennegard GM, Karlsson AK. Higher glucose uptake in paralysed spastic leg. Spinal Cord 2008;46(2):103-106.

Bohannon RW, Smith MB. Interrater reliability of a modified Ashworth scale of muscle spasticity. Phys Ther 1987;67(2):206-207.

Bohannon RW. Tilt table standing for reducing spasticity after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993;74(10):1121-1122.

Boviatsis EJ, Kouyialis AT, Korfias S, Sakas DE. Functional outcome of intrathecal baclofen administration for severe spasticity. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2005;107(4):289-295.

Brackett NL, Ibrahim E, Krassioukov A, Lynne CM. Systemic naloxone infusion may trigger spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury: case series. J Spinal Cord Med 2007;30(3):272-275.

Brashear A. Gordon MF, Elovic, et. Al. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin for the treatment of wrist and finger spasticity after stroke. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347: 395-400.

Brin MF. Dosing, administration, and a treatment algorithm for use of botulinum toxin A for adult-onset spasticity. Spasticity Study Group. Muscle Nerve Suppl 1997;6:S208-S220.

Brin MF. Botulinum toxin: chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity, and immunology. Muscle Nerve Suppl 1997;6:S146-S168.

Broseta J, Garcia-March G, Sanchez-Ledesma MJ, Anaya J, Silva I. Chronic intrathecal baclofen administration in severe spasticity. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1990;54-55:147-153.

Burbaud P, Wiart L, Dubos JL et. Al. A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of botulinum toxin in the treatment of spastic foot in hemiparetic patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1996; 61: 265-269.

Burchiel KJ, Hsu FP. Pain and spasticity after spinal cord injury: mechanisms and treatment. Spine 2001;26(24 Suppl):S146-S160.

Burke D, Gillies JD, Lance JW. An objective assessment of a gamma aminobutyric acid derivative in the control of spasticity. Proc Aust Assoc Neurol 1971;8:131-134.

Canadian Paraplegic Association. Workplace participation national survey of Canadians with SCI. Canadian Paraplegic Association http://www.canparaplegic.org/en/Employment_and_Education_24/EMPLOYMENT_6/14.html. 1996; Last accessed: 9-15-2008.

Cardenas DD, Ditunno J, Graziani V, Jackson AB, Lammertse D, Potter P et al. Phase 2 trial of sustained-release fampridine in chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2007;45(2):158-168.

Casale R, Glynn CJ, Buonocore M. Reduction of spastic hypertonia in patients with spinal cord injury: a double-blind comparison of intravenous orphenadrine citrate and placebo. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1995;76(7):660-665.

Chen SC, Chen YL, Chen CJ, Lai CH, Chiang WH, Chen WL. Effects of surface electrical stimulation on the muscle-tendon junction of spastic gastrocnemius in stroke patients. Disabil Rehabil 2005;27:105-110.

Chou R, Peterson K, Helfand M. Comparative efficacy and safety of skeletal muscle relaxants for spasticity and musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review. J Pain Symptom Manage 2004;28(2):140-175.

Chung BP, Cheng, BK. Immediate effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. Clinical Rehabilitation, 2010;24:202-210.

Clark J. (2002) Alternative Pharmacologic Therapies. In: Gelber DA, Jeffery DR, editors. Current Clinical Neurology: Clinical Evaluation and Management of Spasticity. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, Inc., 151-158.

Coffey JR, Cahill D, Steers W, Park TS, Ordia J, Meythaler J et al. Intrathecal baclofen for intractable spasticity of spinal origin: results of a long-term multicenter study. J Neurosurg 1993;78:226-232.

Coffey RJ, Edgar TS, Francisco GE, Graziani V, Meythaler JM, Ridgely PM, Sadiq SA, Turner MS. Abrupt withdrawal from intrathecal baclofen: Recognition and management of a potentially life threating syndrome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:735-741.

Cook AW, Weinstein SP. Chronic dorsal column stimulation in multiple sclerosis. Preliminary report. N Y State J Med 1973;73(24):2868-2872.

Corbett M, Frankel HL, Michaelis L. A double blind, cross-over trial of Valium in the treatment of spasticity. Paraplegia 1972;10(1):19-22.

Corry IS, Cosgrove AP, Walsh EG, McClean D, Graham HK. Botulinum toxin A in the hemiplegic upper limb: a double-blind trial. Dev Med Child Neurol 1997;39(3):185-193.

Denys P, Mane M, Azouvi P, Chartier-Kastler E, Thiebaut JB, Bussel B. Side effects of chronic intrathecal baclofen on erection and ejaculation in patients with spinal cord lesions. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998;79(5):494-496.

deSeze M, Petit H, Gallien P, de Seze MP, Joseph PA, Mazaux JM et al. Botulinum a toxin and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia: a double-blind lidocaine-controlled study in 13 patients with spinal cord disease. Eur Urol 2002;42(1):56-62.

Devane WA, Dysarz FA, Johnson MR, Melvin LS, Howlett AC. Determination and characterization of a cannabinoid receptor in rat brain. Mol Pharmacol 1988;34:605-613.

Dicpinigaitis PV, Dobkin JB, Reichel J. Typical versus cough-variant of asthma: differentiation by cough reflex sensitivity and the antitussive effect of zafirlukast. Eur Respir J. 2000;16:525s.

Dietz V. Spastic movement disorder. Spinal Cord 2000;38:389-393.

Dietz V, Sinkjaer T. Spastic movement disorder: Impaired reflex function and altered muscle mechanics. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:725-733.

Dimitrijevic MM, Dimitrijevic MR, Illis LS, Nakajima K, Sharkey PC, Sherwood AM. Spinal cord stimulation for the control of spasticity in patients with chronic spinal cord injury: I. Clinical observations. Cent Nerv Syst Trauma 1986;3(2):129-144.

Dimitrijevic MR, Illis LS, Nakajima K, Sharkey PC, Sherwood AM. Spinal cord stimulation for the control of spasticity in patients with chronic spinal cord injury: II. Neurophysiologic observations. Cent Nerv Syst Trauma 1986;3(2):145-152.

Dolley JO, Black J, Williams SR et al. Acceptors for botulinum neurotoxin reside on motor nerve terminals and mediate its internalisation. Nature 1984; 307: 457-60.

Donovan WH, Carter RE, Rossi CD, Wilkerson MA. Clonidine effect on spasticity: a clinical trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1988;69(3 Pt 1):193-194.

Donovan WH, Halter JA, Graves DE, Blight AR, Calvillo O, McCann MT et al. Intravenous infusion of 4-AP in chronic spinal cord injured subjects. Spinal Cord 2000;38(1):7-15.

Duncan GW, Shahani BT, Young RR. An evaluation of baclofen treatment for certain symptoms in patients with spinal cord lesions. A double-blind, cross-over study. Neurology 1976;26(5):441-446.

Dunn RB, Walter JS, Lucero Y, Weaver F, Langbein E, Fehr L et al. Follow-up assessment of standing mobility device users. Assist Technol 1998;10:84-93.

Dykstra DD, Sidi AA. Treatment of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia with botulinum A toxin: a double-blind study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1990;71(1):24-26.

Eng JJ, Levins SM, Townson AF, Mah-Jones D, Bremner J, Huston G. Use of prolonged standing for individuals with spinal cord injuries. Phys Ther 2001;81:1392-1399.

Ewelt C, Stalder S, Steiger HJ, Hildebrandt G, Heilbronner R. Impact of cordectomy as a treatment option for posttraumatic and non-posttraumatic syringomyelia with tethered cord syndrome and myelopathy. Journal of Neurosurgical Spine, 2010;13:193-199.

Falci SP, Indeck C, Lammertse DP. Posttraumatic spinal cord tethering and syringomyelia: Surgical treatment and long-term outcome. Journal of Neurosurgical Spine, 2009;11:445-460.

Finnerup, N. B., Grydehoj, J., Bing, J., Johannesen, I. L., Biering-Sorensen, F., Sindrup, S. H., & Jensen, T. S. (2009). Levetiracetam in spinal cord injury pain: a randomized controlled trial. Spinal Cord, 47(12), 861-867.

Fogel JP, Waters RL, Mahomar F. Dorsal myelotomy for relief of spasticity in spinal injury patients. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1985;(192):137-141.

Francisco GE. Botulinum toxin: dosing and dilution. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2004;83(10Suppl):S30-S37.

Francisco GE, Boake C, Vaughn A. Botulinum toxin in upper limb spasticity after acquired brain injury: a randomized trial comparing dilution techniques. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2002; 81: 355-63.

Franzoi AC, Castro C, Cardone C. Isokinetic assessment of spasticity in subjects with traumatic spinal cord injury (ASIA A). Spinal Cord 37(6)()(pp 416-420), 1999 Date of Publication: 1999 1999;(6):416-420.

Fried GW, Fried KM. Spinal cord injury and use of botulinum toxin in reducing spasticity. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2003;14(4):901-910.

Goldberg J, Seaborne DE, Sullivan SJ, Leduc BE. The effect of therapeutic massage on H-reflex amplitude in persons with a spinal cord injury. Phys Ther 1994;74(8):728-737.

Goldberg MJ. Measuring outcomes in cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop 1991;11(5):682-685.

Gorgey AS, Dudley GA. Spasticity may defend skeletal muscle size and composition after incomplete spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2008;46(2):96-102.

Gormley ME, Jr., O'Brien CF, Yablon SA. A clinical overview of treatment decisions in the management of spasticity. Muscle Nerve Suppl 1997;6:S14-S20.

Goulet C, Arsenault AB, Bourbonnais D, Laramee MT, Lepage Y. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on H-reflex and spinal spasticity. Scand J Rehabil Med 1996;28(3):169-176.

Gracies JM, Nance P, Elovic E, McGuire J, Simpson DM. Traditional pharmacological treatments for spasticity. Part II: General and regional treatments. Muscle Nerve Suppl 1997;6:S92-120.

Granat MH, Ferguson AC, Andrews BJ, Delargy M. The role of functional electrical stimulation in the rehabilitation of patients with incomplete spinal cord injury–observed benefits during gait studies. Paraplegia 1993;31(4):207-215.

Gruenthal M, Mueller M, Olson WL, Priebe MM, Sherwood AM, Olson WH. Gabapentin for the treatment of spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1997;35(10):686-689.

Haas BM, Bergstrom E, Jamous A, Bennie A. The inter rater reliability of the original and of the modified Ashworth scale for the assessment of spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1996;34(9):560-564.

Hagenbach U, Luz S, Ghafoor N, Berger JM, Grotenhermen F, Brenneisen R et al. The treatment of spasticity with Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2007;45(8):551-562.

Halstead LS, Seager SW. The effects of rectal probe electrostimulation on spinal cord injury spasticity. Paraplegia 1991;29(1):43-47.

Halstead LS, Seager SW, Houston JM, Whitesell K, Dennis M, Nance PW. Relief of spasticity in SCI men and women using rectal probe electrostimulation. Paraplegia 1993;31(11):715-721.

Hansebout RR, Blight AR, Fawcett S, Reddy K. 4-Aminopyridine in chronic spinal cord injury: a controlled, double-blind, crossover study in eight patients. J Neurotrauma 1993;10(1):1-18.

Harvey LA, Herbert RD, Glinsky J, Moseley AM, Bowden J. Effects of 6 months of regular passive movements on ankle joint mobility in people with spinal cord injury: a randomized controlled trial. Spinal Cord 2009;47:62-66.

Hayes KC, Potter PJ, Wolfe DL, Hsieh JT, Delaney GA, Blight AR. 4-Aminopyridine-sensitive neurologic deficits in patients with spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma 1994;11(4):433-446.

Hayes KC. Fampridine-SR for multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Expert Rev Neurother 2007;7(5):453-461.

Hecht MJ, Stolze H, uf dem BM, Giess R, Treig T, Winterholler M et al. Botulinum neurotoxin type A injections reduce spasticity in mild to moderate hereditary spastic paraplegia–report of 19 cases. Mov Disord 2008;23(2):228-233.

Heetla HW, Staal MJ, Kliphuis C, van Laar T. The incidence and management of tolerance in intrathecal baclofen therapy. Spinal Cord, 2009;47:751-756.

Heetla HW, Staal MJ, Kliphuis C, van Laar T. Tolerance to continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion can be reversed by pulsatile bolus infusion. Spinal Cord, 2010;48: 483-486.

Hinderer SR, Lehmann JF, Price R, White O, deLateur BJ, Deitz J. Spasticity in spinal cord injured persons: quantitative effects of baclofen and placebo treatments. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1990;69(6):311-317.

Hinderer SR. The supraspinal anxiolytic effect of baclofen for spasticity reduction. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1990;69(5):254-258.

Howlett AC, Qualy JM, Khachatrian LL. Involvement of Gi in the inhibition of adenylate cyclase by cannabimimetic drugs. Mol Pharmacol 1986;29:307-313.

Hugenholtz H, Nelson RF, Dehoux E, Bickerton R. Intrathecal baclofen for intractable spinal spasticity – a double-blind cross-over comparison with placebo in 6 patients. Can J Neurol Sci 1992;19(2):188-195.

Hyman N, Barnes M, Bhakta B, Cozens A, Bakheit M, Kreczy-Kleedorfer B et al. Botulinum toxin (Dysport) treatment of hip adductor spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a prospective, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, dose ranging study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;68(6):707-712.

Illis LS, Read DJ, Sedgwick EM, Tallis RC. Spinal cord stimulation in the United Kingdom. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1983;46(4):299-304.

Kakebeeke TH, Lechner H, Baumberger M et al. The importance of posture on the isokinetic assessment of spasticity. Spinal Cord 2002; 40(5):236-243.

Kakebeeke TH, Lechner HE, Knapp PA. The effect of passive cycling movements on spasticity after spinal cord injury: preliminary results. Spinal Cord 2005;43(8):483-488.

Kamen L, Henney HR, III, Runyan JD. A practical overview of tizanidine use for spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis, stroke, and spinal cord injury. Curr Med Res Opin 2008;24(2):425-439.

Katz RT. Management of spastic hypertonia after stroke. J Neuro Rehab 1991;5:S5-S12.

Keren O, Shinberg F, Catz A, Giladi N. Botulin toxin for spasticity in spinal cord damage by treating the motor endplate. Harefuah 2000;138(3):204-208.

Kesiktas N, Paker N, Erdogan N, Gulsen G, Bicki D, Yilmaz H. The use of hydrotherapy for the management of spasticity. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2004;18(4):268-273.

Kiminski NE, Abood ME, Kessler FK, Martin BR, Schatz AR Identification of a funcationally relevant cannabinoid receptor on mouse spleen cells that Is involved in cannabinoid-mediated immune moduleation. Mol Pharmacol 1992;42:736-742.

Kirazli Y, On AY, Kismali B, Aksit R. Comparison of phenol block and botulinus toxin type A in the treatment of spastic foot after stroke: a randomized, double-blind trial. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1998 Nov-Dec;77(6):510-5.

Kirshblum S. Treatment alternatives for spinal cord injury related spasticity. J Spinal Cord Med 1999;22(3):199-217.

Kiser TS, Reese NB, Maresh T, Hearn S, Yates C, Skinner RD et al. Use of a motorized bicycle exercise trainer to normalize frequency-dependent habituation of the H-reflex in spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2005;28(3):241-245.

Knutsson E, Lindblom U, Martensson A. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of baclofen (Lioresal) at optimal therapeutic responses in spastic paresis. J Neurol Sci 1974;23(3):473-484.

Kogel RW, Johnson PB, Chintam R, Robinson CJ, Nemchausky BA. Treatment of spasticity in spinal cord injury with dronabinol, a tetrahydrocannabinol derivative. Am J Ther 1995;2(10):799-805.

Korenkov AI, Niendorf WR, Darwish N, Glaeser E, Gaab MR. Continuous intrathecal infusion of baclofen in patients with spasticity caused by spinal cord injuries. Neurosurg Rev 2002;25:228-230.

Krause JS. Self-reported problems after spinal cord injury: Implications for rehabilitation practice. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation 2007;12(3):35-44.

Krause P, Szecsi J, Straube A. Changes in spastic muscle tone increase in patients with spinal cord injury using functional electrical stimulation and passive leg movements. Clinical Rehabilitation 22(7)()(pp 627-634), 2008 Date of Publication: 2008 2008;(7):627-634.

Kumru H, Vidal J, Kofler M, Portell E, Valls-Sole J. Alterations in excitatory and inhibitory brainstem interneuronal circuits after severe spinal cord injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 2010;27:721-728.

Kunkel CF, Scremin AM, Eisenberg B, Garcia JF, Roberts S, Martinez S. Effect of "standing" on spasticity, contracture, and osteoporosis in paralyzed males. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993;74:73-78.

Laessoe L, Nielsen JB, Biering-Sorensen F, Sonksen J. Antispastic effect of penile vibration in men with spinal cord lesion. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85(6):919-924.

Laitinen L, Singounas E. Longitudinal myelotomy in the treatment of spasticity of the legs. J Neurosurg 1971;35(5):536-540.

Lance JW. (1980) Symposium synopsis. In: Feldman RG, Young RR, Koella WP, editors. Spasiticity: disordered motor control. Chicago: Year Book Medical Pubs, 485-494.

Lechner HE, Feldhaus S, Gudmundsen L, Hegemann D, Michel D, Zach GA et al. The short-term effect of hippotherapy on spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2003;41(9):502-505.

Lechner HE, Kakebeeke TH, Hegemann D, Baumberger M. The effect of hippotherapy on spasticity and on mental well-being of persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007;88(10):1241-1248.

Lee A, Patterson V. A double-blind study of L-threonine in patients with spinal spasticity. Acta Neurol Scand 1993;88(5):334-338.

Levi R, Hultling C, Nash MS, Seiger A. The Stockholm spinal cord injury study: 1. medical problems in a regional SCI population. Paraplegia 1995;33:308-315.

Li S, Xue S, Li Z, Liu X. Effect of baclofen combined with neural facilitation technique on the reduction of muscular spasm in patients with spinal cord injury. Neural Regeneration Research 2007;2(8):510-512.

Little WJ. Course of Lections on the deformities of the human frame. Lecture IX. Lance 1843:I:350-354.

Livshits A, Rappaport ZH, Livshits V, Gepstein R. Surgical treatment of painful spasticity after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2002;40(4):161-166.

Loubser PG, Narayan RK, Sandin KJ, Donovan WH, Russell KD. Continuous infusion of intrathecal baclofen: long-term effects on spasticity in spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 1991;29:48-64.

Mahoney JS, Engebretson JC, Cook KF, Hart KA, Robinson-Whelen S, Sherwood AM. Spasticity experience domains in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007;88(3):287-294.

Malec J, Harvey RF, Cayner JJ. Cannabis effect on spasticity in spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1982;63(3):116-118.

Malinovsky J-M, Malinge M, Lepage J-Y, Pinaud M. Sedation caused by clonidine in patients with spinal cord injury. British Journal of Anaesthesia 90(6)()(pp 742-745), 2003 Date of Publication: 01 Jun 2003 2003;(6):742-745.

Mathias CJ, Luckitt J, Desai P, Baker H, el MW, Frankel HL. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the oral antispastic agent tizanidine in patients with spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev 1989;26(4):9-16.

Maurer M, Henn V, Dittrich A, Hofmann A. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1990;240(1):1-4.

Maynard FM, Karunas RS, Waring WP, III. Epidemiology of spasticity following traumatic spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1990;71(8):566-569.

Mechoulam R. Cannabinoids as Therapeutic Agents. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press, 1986.

Merritt JL. Management of spasticity in spinal cord injury. Mayo Clin Proc 1981;56(10):614-622.

Meythaler JM, Roper JF, Brunner RC. Cyproheptadine for intrathecal baclofen withdrawal. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 84(5)()(pp 638-642), 2003 Date of Publication: 01 May 2003 2003;(5):638-642.

Midha M, Schmitt JK. Epidural spinal cord stimulation for the control of spasticity in spinal cord injury patients lacks long-term efficacy and is not cost-effective. Spinal Cord 1998;36(3):190-192.

Mirbagheri MM, Barbeau H, Ladouceur M, Kearney RE. Intrinsic and reflex stiffness in normal and spastic, spinal cord injured subjects. Experimental Brain Research 141(4)()(pp 446-459), 2001 Date of Publication: 2001 2001;(4):446-459.

Mirbagheri, M. M., Chen, D., & Rymer, W. Z. (2010). Quantification of the effects of an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist on reflex properties in spinal cord injury using a system identification technique. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabiliation, 7, 29.

Mirbagheri MM, Ladouceur M, Barbeau H, Kearney RE. The effects of long-term FES-assisted walking on intrinsic and reflex dynamic stiffness in spastic spinal-cord-injured subjects. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2002;10(4):280-289.

Murillo N, Kumru H, Vidal-Samso J, Benito J, Medina J, Navarro X, Valls-Sole J. Decrease of spasticity with muscle vibration in patients with spinal cord injury. Clinical Neurophysiology, 2011;122:1183-1189.

Musty RE, Cansroe P. (2002) Marijuana And Cannabinoids In Spastic Disorders: An Overview Of Experimental And Clinical Research. In: Grotenhermen F, Russo E, editors. Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential. Philadelphia, PA: Haworth Press, 195-204.

Nance, P. W., Huff, F. J., Martinez-Arizala, A., Ayyoub, Z., Chen, D., Bian, A., & Stamler, D. (2011). Efficacy and safety study of arbaclofen placarbil in patients with spasticity due to spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord, 49(9), 974-980.

Nance PW, Schryvers O, Schmidt B, Dubo H, Loveridge B, Fewer D. Intrathecal baclofen therapy for adults with spinal spasticity: therapeutic efficacy and effect on hospital admissions. Can J Neurol Sci 1995;22:22-29.

Nance PW, Shears AH, Nance DM. Reflex changes induced by clonidine in spinal cord injured patients. Paraplegia 1989;27(4):296-301.

Nance PW. A comparison of clonidine, cyproheptadine and baclofen in spastic spinal cord injured patients. J Am Paraplegia Soc 1994;17(3):150-156.

Nance PW, Bugaresti J, Shellenberger K, Sheremata W, Martinez-Arizala A. Efficacy and safety of tizanidine in the treatment of spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury.  North American Tizanidine Study Group. Neurology 1994;44:S44-S51.

Ness LL, Field-Fote EC. Effect of whole-body vibration on quadriceps spasticity in individuals with spastic hypertonia due to spinal cord injury. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 2009;27:621-631.

Norman KE, Pepin A, Barbeau H. Effects of drugs on walking after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1998;36(10):699-715.

O'Brien CF. Injection techniques for botulinum toxin using electromyography and electrical stimulation. Muscle Nerve Suppl 1997;6:S176-S180.

O'Brien CF. Treatment of spasticity with botulinum toxin. Clin J Pain. 2002 Nov-Dec;18(6suppl): S182-290.

Ochs G, Struppler A, Meyerson BA, Linderoth B, Gybels J, Gardner BP et al. Intrathecal baclofen for  long-term treatment of spasticity: a multi-centre study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:933-939.

Odeen I, Knutsson E. Evaluation of the effects of muscle stretch and weight load in patients with spastic paraplegia. Scand J Rehabil Med 1981;13:117-121.

Oechsner M. Treatment of hip adductor spasticity with botulinum toxin type B. Nervenarzt 2002;73(12):1179-1182.

On AY, Kirazli Y, Kismali B, Aksit R. Mechanisms of action of phenol block and botulinus toxin Type A in relieving spasticity: electrophysiologic investigation and follow-up. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 Jul-Aug;78(4):344-9.

Ordia JI, Fischer E, Adamski E, Spatz EL. Chronic intrathecal delivery of baclofen by a programmable pump for the treatment of severe spasticity. J Neurosurg 1996;85:452-457.

Ozer K, Chesher SP, Scheker LR. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and dynamic bracing for the management of upper-extremity spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2006;48:559-563.

Paisley S, Beard S, Hunn A, Wight J. Clinical effectiveness of oral treatments for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. Mult Scler 2002;8(4):319-329.

Pandyan AD, Gregoric M, Barnes MP, Wood D, van WF, Burridge J et al. Spasticity: clinical perceptions, neurological realities and meaningful measurement. Disabil Rehabil 2005;27(1-2):2-6.

Parke B, Penn RD, Savoy SM, Corcos D. Functional outcome after delivery of intrathecal baclofen. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1989;70:30-32.

Penn RD. Intrathecal baclofen for severe spasticity. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1988;531:157-166.

Penn RD, Savoy SM, Corcos D, Latash M, Gottlieb G, Parke B et al. Intrathecal baclofen for severe spinal spasticity. N Engl J Med 1989;320:1517-1521.

Penn RD. Intrathecal baclofen for spasticity of spinal origin: seven years of experience. J Neurosurg 1992;77:236-240.

Pertwee RG. Cannabinoids and multiple sclerosis. Pharmacol Ther 2002;95(2):165-174.

Pierson SH. Outcome measures in spasticity management. Muscle Nerve Suppl 1997;6:S36-S60.

Pinter MM, Gerstenbrand F, Dimitrijevic MR. Epidural electrical stimulation of posterior structures of the human lumbosacral cord: 3. Control Of spasticity. Spinal Cord 2000;38(9):524-531.

Plassat R, Perrouin Verbe B, Menei P, Menegalli D, Mathe JF, Richard I. Treatment of spasticity with intrathecal Baclofen administration: long-term follow-up, review of 40 patients. Spinal Cord 2004;42:686-693.

Pooyania, S., Ethans, K., Szturm, T., Casey, A., & Perry,D. (2010). A randomized, double-blinded, crossover pilot study assessing the effect of nabilone on spasticity in persons with spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91(5), 703-707.

Possover M, Schurch B, Henle KP. New strategies of pelvic nerves stimulation for recovery of pelvic visceral functions and locomotion in paraplegics. Neurourol Urodyn. 2010 Nov;29(8). 

Postma TJBM, Oenema D, Terpstra S et al. Cost analysis of the treatment of severe spinal spasticity with a continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion system. PharmacoEconomics 15(4)()(pp 395-404), 1999 Date of Publication: 1999 1999;(4):395-404.

Potter PJ, Hayes KC, Segal JL, Hsieh JT, Brunnemann SR, Delaney GA et al. Randomized double-blind crossover trial of fampridine-SR (sustained release 4-aminopyridine) in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma 1998;15(10):837-849.

Potter PJ, Hayes KC, Hsieh JT, Delaney GA, Segal JL. Sustained improvements in neurological function in spinal cord injured patients treated with oral 4-aminopyridine: three cases. Spinal Cord 1998;36(3):147-155.

Price R, Lehmann JF, Boswell-Bessette S, Burleigh A, deLateur BJ. Influence of cryotherapy on spasticity at the human ankle. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993;74(3):300-304.

Priebe MM, Sherwood AM, Thornby JI, Kharas NF, Markowski J. Clinical assessment of spasticity in spinal cord injury: a multidimensional problem. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77(7):713-716.

Putty TK, Shapiro SA. Efficacy of dorsal longitudinal myelotomy in treating spinal spasticity: a review of 20 cases. J Neurosurg 1991;75(3):397-401.

Raine S. The current theoretical assumptions of the Bobath concept as determined by the members of BBTA. Physiother Theory Pract 2007;23(3):137-152.

Rayegani, S. M., Shojaee, H., Sedighipour, L., Soroush, M. R., Baghbani, M., & Amirani, O. B. (2011). The effect of electrical passive cycling on spasticity in war veterans with spinal cord injury. Frontiers in Neurology, 2(39), 1-7.

Remy-Neris O, Barbeau H, Daniel O, Boiteau F, Bussel B. Effects of intrathecal clonidine injection on spinal reflexes and human locomotion in incomplete paraplegic subjects. Exp Brain Res 1999;129(3):433-440.

Remy-Neris O, Denys P, Bussel B. Intrathecal clonidine for controlling spastic hypertonia. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2001;12(4):939-51, ix.

Reynolds JR. Therapeutic uses and toxic effects of Cannabis indica. Lancet 1890;1:637-638.

Richardson D, Edwards S, Sheean GL, Greenwood RJ, Thompson AJ. The effect of botulinum toxin on hand function after incomplete spinal cord injury at the level of C5/6: a case report. Clin Rehabil 1997;11(4):288-292.

Richardson D, Sheean G, Werring D, Desai M, Edwards S, Greenwood R et al. Evaluating the role of botulinum toxin in the management of focal hypertonia in adults. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;69(4):499-506.

Richardson RR, McLone DG. Percutaneous epidural neurostimulation for paraplegic spasticity. Surg Neurol 1978;9(3):153-155.

Robinson CJ, Kett NA, Bolam JM. Spasticity in spinal cord injured patients: 2. Initial measures and long-term effects of surface electrical stimulation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1988;69(10):862-868.

Robinson CJ, Kett NA, Bolam JM. Spasticity in spinal cord injured patients: 1. Short-term effects of surface electrical stimulation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1988;69(8):598-604.

Rosche J, Paulus C, Maisch U, Kaspar A, Mauch E, Kornhuber HH. The effects of therapy on spasticity utilizing a motorized exercise-cycle. Spinal Cord 1997;35(3):176-178.

Rosche J. Treatment of spasticity. Spinal Cord 2002;40(6):261-262.

Roussan M, Terrence C, Fromm G. Baclofen versus diazepam for the treatment of spasticity and long-term follow-up of baclofen therapy. Pharmatherapeutica 1985;4(5):278-284.

Schule R, Holland-Letz T, Klimpe S, Kassubek J, Klopstock T, Mall V et al. The Spastic Paraplegia Rating Scale (SPRS): a reliable and valid measure of disease severity. Neurology 2006;67(3):430-434.

Schurch B, Hauri D, Rodic B, Curt A, Meyer M, Rossier AB. Botulinum-A toxin as a treatment of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia: a prospective study in 24 spinal cord injury patients. J Urol 1996;155(3):1023-1029.

Segal JL, Pathak MS, Hernandez JP, Himber PL, Brunnemann SR, Charter RS. Safety and efficacy of 4-aminopyridine in humans with spinal cord injury: a long-term, controlled trial. Pharmacotherapy 1999;19(6):713-723.

Seib TP, Price R, Reyes MR, Lehmann JF. The quantitative measurement of spasticity: effect of cutaneous electrical stimulation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1994;75(7):746-750.

Shahani BT, Young RR. Management of flexor spasms with Lioresal. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1974;55(10):465-467.

Shields RK, Dudley-Javoroski S. Monitoring standing wheelchair use after spinal cord injury: a case report. Disabil Rehabil 2005;27:142-146.

Simpson DM, Alexander DN, O'Brien CF, Tagliati M, Aswad AS, Leon JM et al. Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of upper extremity spasticity: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 1996;46(5):1306-1310.

Simpson DM. Clinical trials of botulinum toxin in the treatment of spasticity. Muscle Nerve Suppl 1997;6:S169-S175.

Skold C. Spasticity in spinal cord injury: self- and clinically rated intrinsic fluctuations and intervention-induced changes. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81(2):144-149.

Smith SJ, Ellis E, White S, Moore AP. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of botulinum toxin in upper limb spasticity after stroke or head injury. Clin Rehabil 2000;14(1):5-13.

Snow BJ, Tsui JK, Bhatt MH, Varelas M, Hashimoto SA, Calne DB. Treatment of spasticity with botulinum toxin: a double-blind study. Ann Neurol 1990;28(4):512-515.

Steeves JD, Lammertse D, Curt A et al. Guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials for spinal cord injury (SCI) as developed by the ICCP panel: Clinical trial outcome measures. Spinal Cord 45(3)()(pp 206-221), 2007 Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2007 2007;(3):206-221.

Stempien L, Tsai T. Intrathecal baclofen pump use for spasticity: a clinical survey. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2000;79:536-541.

Stewart JE, Barbeau H, Gauthier S. Modulation of locomotor patterns and spasticity with clonidine in spinal cord injured patients. Can J Neurol Sci 1991;18(3):321-332.

Takenaga S, Kawahigashi Y, Sonoda Y, Horikiri T, Hirata K, Arimura K et al. Treatment of spastic paraparesis with botulinum toxin with reference to beneficial effects, disease severity and long-term treatment. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 1995;35(3):251-255.

Tardieau G, Shentoub S, Delarue R. A la recherche d'une technique de measure de la spasticite. Revue de Neurologie (Paris) 1954;91:143-144.

Taricco M, Pagliacci MC, Telaro E, Adone R. Pharmacological interventions for spasticity following spinal cord injury: results of a Cochrane systematic review. Eura Medicophys 2006;42(1):5-15.

Thoumie P, Le CG, Beillot J, Dassonville J, Chevalier T, Perrouin-Verbe B et al. Restoration of functional gait in paraplegic patients with the RGO-II hybrid orthosis. A multicenter controlled study. II: Physiological evaluation. Paraplegia 1995;33(11):654-659.

Uchikawa K, Toikawa H, Liu M. Subscapularis motor point block for spastic shoulders in patients with cervical cord injury. Spinal Cord 47(3)()(pp 249-251), 2009 Date of Publication: March 2009 2009;(3):249-251.

van der Salm A, Veltink PH, Ijzerman MJ, Groothuis-Oudshoorn KC, Nene AV, Hermens HJ. Comparison of electric stimulation methods for reduction of triceps surae spasticity in spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2006;87(2):222-228.

Vorrink SNW, Van Der Woude LHV, Messenberg A et al. Comparison of wheelchair wheels in terms of vibration and spasticity in people with spinal cord injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 45(9)()(pp 1269-1280), 2008 Date of Publication: 2008 2008;(9):1269-1280.

Wainberg M, Barbeau H, Gauthier S. The effects of cyproheptadine on locomotion and on spasticity in patients with spinal cord injuries. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1990;53(9):754-763.

Walker JB. Temporary suppression of clonus in humans by brief photostimulation. Brain Res 1985;340(1):109-113.

Walter JS, Sacks J, Othman R, Rankin AZ, Nemchausky B, Chintam R et al. A database of self-reported secondary medical problems among VA spinal cord injury patients: its role in clinical care and management. J Rehabil Res Dev 2002;39:53-61.

Ward AB. A summary of spasticity management–a treatment algorithm. Eur J Neurol 2002;9 Suppl 1:48-52.

Wasiak J, Hoare B, Wallen M. Botulinum toxin A as an adjunct to treatment in the management of the upper limb in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(4):CD003469.

Wassef MR.  Interadductor approach to obturator nerve blockade for spastic conditions of adductor thigh muscles. Reg Anesth. 1993 Jan-Feb;18(1):13-7.

Wassermann EM, Lisanby SH. Therapeutic application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a review. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2001;112:1367-1377.

Weingarden SI, Belen JG. Clonidine transdermal system for treatment of spasticity in spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73(9):876-877.

Wilson LA, McKechnie AA. Oral diazepam in the treatment of spasticity in paraplegia a double-blind trial and subsequent impressions. Scott Med J 1966;11(2):46-51.

Wissel J, Heinen F, shenkel A. et. Al. Botulinum toxin A in the management of spastic gait disorders in children and yung adults with cerebral palsy: a randomized, double-blind study of “high-dose” versus “low-dose” treatment. Neuropediatrics 1999; 30: 120-24.

Yablon SA, Sipski ML. Effect of transdermal clonidine on spinal spasticity. A case series. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1993;72(3):154-157.

Yadav SL, Singh U, Dureja GP, Singh KK, Chaturvedi S. Phenol block in the management of spastic cerebral palsy. Indian J Pediatr. 1994 May-Jun;61(3):249-55.

Yamada S, Perot PL, Jr., Ducker TB, Lockard I. Myelotomy for control of mass spasms in paraplegia. J Neurosurg 1976;45(6):683-691.

Yasar E, Tok F, Taskaynatan MA, Yilmaz B, Balaban B, Alaca R. The effects of phenol neurolysis of the obturator nerve on the distribution of buttock-seat interface pressure in spinal cord injury patients with hip adductor spasticity. Spinal Cord, 2010;48:828-831.Young RR. Treatment of spastic paresis (editorial). N Engl J Med 1989;320:1553-1555.

Young RR. Spasticity: a review. Neurology 1994;44:S12-S20.

Zahavi A, Geertzen JH, Middel B, Staal M, Rietman JS. Long term effect (more than five years) of intrathecal baclofen on impairment, disability, and quality of life in patients with severe spasticity of spinal origin. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2004;75:1553-1557.