Biofeedback involves training individuals to gain control over brain states through electroencephalography (EEG) in order to help improve pain intensity. Biofeedback has been previously been shown to improve pain intensity in individuals with fibromyalgia and migraines (Jensen et al. 2013).
A pre-post study (Jensen et al. 2013) found biofeedback improved pain intensity among individuals with SCI pain. Jensen et al. (2009)randomly allocated participants into hypnosis or the biofeedback treatment group. Participants in the hypnosis group reported a significant decrease in neuropathic pain intensity compared to those in the biofeedback group (p<0.01). However, no such effect was seen between the two groups in individuals without neuropathic pain.
There is level 4 evidence (from one pre-post study; Jensen et al. 2013) that biofeedback may reduce neuropathic and musculoskeletal pain intensity post SCI.
- Biofeedback may reduce neuropathic and musculoskeletal pain intensity post SCI.