AA

Key Points

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  • Pain post SCI has a significant effect on quality of life.
  • Post-SCI pain is common and often severe beginning relatively early post injury.
  • Post-SCI pain is most commonly divided into neuropathic or musculoskeletal pain.
  • Massage and heat may be helpful for post-SCI pain.
  • Acupuncture may reduce post-SCI pain.
  • Regular exercise reduces post-SCI pain.
  • A shoulder exercise protocol reduces post-SCI shoulder pain intensity.
  • MAGIC wheels 2 gear wheelchair reduces shoulder pain.
  • Hypnosis may reduce pain intensity post SCI.
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces post-SCI pain.
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy combined with pharmacological treatment results in short term improvement in chronic pain.
  • Cognitive-behavioral pain management programs alone do not alter post-SCI pain.
  • Visual imagery may reduce neuropathic pain post SCI
  • Transcranial electrical stimulation is effective in reducing post-SCI neuropathic pain.
  • Static field magnet may reduce nociceptive shoulder pain post SCI.
  • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation may reduce pain at site of injury in patients with thoracic but not cervical injury.
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces post-SCI pain.
  • Gabapentin and pregabalin improve neuropathic pain post SCI.
  • Lamotrigine may improve neuropathic pain in patients with incomplete SCI.
  • Levetiracetam is not effective in reducing neuropathic pain post SCI.
  • Valproic acid does not reduce neuropathic pain post SCI.
  • Duloxetine may improve neuropathic pain post SCI
  • Amitriptyline is effective in reducing pain in depressed SCI individuals.
  • Trazodone does not reduce post-SCI pain.
  • Lidocaine through a subarachnoid lumbar catheter and intravenous Ketamine improve post SCI pain short term.
  • Mexilitene does not improve SCI dysesthetic pain.
  • Intrathecal Baclofen improves musculoskeletal pain post SCI and may help dysethetic pain related to spasticity.
  • Motor point phenol block reduces spastic shoulder pain.
  • Botulinum toxin injections for treatment of focal spasticity improves pain.
  • Intravenous morphine reduces mechanical allodynia.
  • Tramadol reduces neuropathic pain.
  • Alfentanil reduces chronic pain post SCI.
  • Alfentanil is more effective in reducing wind up like pain post SCI than ketamine.
  • Cannabinoids are a potential new treatment for post-SCI pain in need of further study.
  • Intrathecal Clonidine alone does not provide pain relief although it may be helpful in combination with Intrathecal Morphine.
  • Topical capsaicin reduces post-SCI radicular pain.
  • Spinal cord stimulation may improve post-SCI pain.
  • Dorsal longitudinal T-myelotomy procedures reduce pain post SCI.
  • DREZ surgical procedure reduces pain post SCI.