Non-Pharmacological Pain Treatments

After a month in rehabilitation, Mr. A.H.’s pain has increased to the point where he has started to miss therapies and often refuses to get out of bed. The therapists report that he complains of increased shoulder pain with passive ROM. He also reports increased shoulder and posterior neck pain with prolonged periods of sitting in his wheelchair. He has developed spasticity in his abdomen and lower extremities, which exacerbates his pain. Mr. A.H. asks about the non-pharmacological treatment options available to him.
Q11. List non-pharmacological treatments available to manage pain post SCI.
1.  Massage and Heat
2.  Acupuncture and TENS
3.  Exercises for Post-SCI pain
4.  Exercises for Shoulder Pain
5.  Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
6.  Visual Imagery
7.  Hypnotic Suggestions
8.  Transcranial Electrical Stimulation
9.  Static Magnetic Field Therapy
10. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation
11. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
12. Pain Management Program