AA

Risk Factors for Shoulder Pain

Presuming shoulder pain is related to his SCI, what are some identified risk factors which would result in a SCI patient developing shoulder pain?
1. Subject to higher intra-articular pressures (i.e. weight-bearing) which the shoulder was not designed to handle.
2. Denervation and postural issues may create muscle imbalaces which lead to painful shoulders.
3. Spasticity around the shoulder, especially of internal rotators and adductors, can be the cause of shoulder pain, especially in incomplete tetraplegia.
4. Lack of mobilization of shoulder joints may lead to shoulder pain. Complete injuries and those with quadriplegia are at higher risk.
5. Chronicity of SCI is related to shoulder pain.
6. More common in women, older individuals with SCI and those with higher BMIs.